The example template given below contains the metadata fields that are commonly included when reporting data related to this specific template. Some of these metadata elements may not be relevant for your data reporting, like AIRS station ID for stations outside North America or the various QA measure data when there is no QA measure for the data. Such metadata elements could be let out. If you want to include additional metadata elements that are not given in the example template, there is a complete list here.  In case of any doubt about such additional metadata, please consult the EBAS team!

Template for submission of inorganic precipitation chemistry measurements

This format should be used for submitting all relevant inorganic components (sulphur, nitrogen, base cations and sea salt ions) measured in precipitation, including pH, conductivity and precipitation amount. Typically a wet only sampler is used, which is the EMEP reference method, but also bulk sampler is commonly used. It is important to measure and report all major ions and pH to be able to calculate the ion balance for quality assurance purposes.

Points to note:

  • Report precipitation amount from the wet only (or bulk) sampler AND the co-locoated official meteorological rain gauge when availible.
  • Include information on both the sampling and analytical instruments.
  • Include information on performance in laboratory intercomparion, i.e in EMEP and WMO/GAW in the respective year. This should be documented in the QA metadata elements.
  • For days without rain, set value to 0.00/flag to 000 for precipitation amount, and value to missing/flag to 890 for the chemical species.
  • Boundary and Spike Checks: Submitted data will be checked for boundaries, the current specification for boundary checks can be found here.
Downloading template as nasaames file

Please download the .nas file and edit, and remember to keep the .nas file-extension when you create your datafile:

Validation and submission:

To validate the file, please use the EBAS Submission Tool

Flags commonly used with this format:

The three main types of flags in EBAS are:

  • V (valid measurement): indicate a special condition at the station, but instrument has operated correctly, the data are therefore considered valid.
  • I (invalid measurement): showing that data are not available (not measured, deleted or if it is no precipitation)
  • M (missing measurement): mainly used for level 0 data to be able to exclude these data when being reprocessed to level 1 and level 2

For data harmonization across the network, the following short list of the flags should be used with this template. It is possible to use several flags at the same time to give detailed information about the data.

Group 0: Valid data
Flag Validity Description
000 V valid data, no flag
Group 4: Extreme or inconsistent values
Flag Validity Description
440 V Reconstructed or recalculated data
459 I Extreme value, unspecified error
460 I Contamination suspected
Group 5: Chemical problem
Flag Validity Description
521 V Bactericide was added to sample for storage under warm climate. Considered valid
555 V Pollen and/or leaf contamination, but considered valid
556 V Bird droppings, but considered valid
557 V Insect contamination, but considered valid
558 V Dust contamination, but considered valid
559 V Unspecified contamination or local influence, but considered valid
565 I Pollen and/or leaf contamination, considered invalid
566 I Bird droppings, considered invalid
567 I Insect contamination, considered invalid
568 I Dust contamination, considered invalid
591 I Agricultural contamination, considered invalid
599 I Unspecified contamination or local influence
Group 6: Mechanical or instrumental problem
Flag Validity Description
648 V Snow sampler
651 V Agricultural activity nearby
652 V Construction/acitivity nearby
656 V Wet-only collector failure, operated as bulk collector
657 V Precipitation collector overflow. Heavy snowfall/rain shower (squall)
Group 7: Flags used when the value is unknown
Flag Validity Description
780 V Value below detection or quantification limit, data element contains estimated or measured value. Use of flag 147 is encouraged.
781 V Value below detection limit, data element contains detection limit
782 V Low precipitation, concentration estimated
783 M Low precipitation, concentration unknown
Group 8: Flags for undefined data elements
Flag Validity Description
890 M Concentration in precipitation undefined, no precipitation
Group 9: Missing flags
Flag Validity Description
999 M Missing measurement, unspecified reason
100 1001
Aas, Wenche; Someone, Else
NO01L, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU, , Instituttveien 18, , 2007, Kjeller, Norway
Hjellbrekke, Anne
1 1
2018 01 01 2020 10 15
days from file reference point
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
9.999999 999.9 9.999 9 9.999 9.99 9.999 9.99 9.999 9.99 9.999 999 9.999 9.999 9.999 9.99 9.999 99.99 9.999 9.99 9.999 9.99 9.999 9.99 9.999
end_time of measurement, days from the file reference point
precipitation_amount, mm, Analytical measurement technique=by_volume, Analytical instrument name=NILU_vol, Analytical instrument manufacturer=, Analytical instrument model=, Analytical instrument serial number=, Detection limit=0.01 mm, QA1 measure ID=, QA1 date=, QA1 outcome=, QA2 measure ID=, QA2 date=, QA2 outcome=
numflag precipitation_amount, no unit
precipitation_amount_off, mm, Instrument type=precip_gauge, Instrument name=NILU_mm_off, Instrument model=RG1, Analytical measurement technique=rain_gauge, Analytical instrument name=gauge_01, Analytical instrument manufacturer=, Analytical instrument model=, Analytical instrument serial number=, Detection limit=0.01 mm, QA1 measure ID=, QA1 date=, QA1 outcome=, QA2 measure ID=, QA2 date=, QA2 outcome=
numflag precipitation_amount_off, no unit
ammonium, mg N/l, Detection limit=0.01 mg N/l, QA1 bias=-1.8 %, QA1 variability=1.3 %, QA2 bias=-2.2 %, QA2 variability=1.0 %
numflag ammonium, no unit
calcium, mg/l, Detection limit=0.01 mg/l, QA1 outcome=pass, QA1 bias=-27.1 %, QA1 variability=1.4 %, QA2 bias=-3.1 %, QA2 variability=1.8 %
numflag calcium, no unit
chloride, mg/l, Detection limit=0.01 mg/l, QA1 bias=-11.0 %, QA1 variability=3.0 %, QA2 bias=-9.9 %, QA2 variability=2.9 %
numflag chloride, no unit
conductivity, uS/cm, Analytical measurement technique=conductivity_meter, Analytical instrument name=NILU_cond_1, Analytical instrument manufacturer=, Analytical instrument model=, Analytical instrument serial number=, Detection limit=0.1 uS/cm, QA1 bias=6.8 %, QA1 variability=1.0 %, QA2 bias=7.3 %, QA2 variability=1.9 %
numflag conductivity, no unit
magnesium, mg/l, Detection limit=0.01 mg/l, QA1 measure ID=, QA1 date=, QA1 outcome=, QA2 bias=-0.5 %, QA2 variability=2.3 %
numflag magnesium, no unit
nitrate, mg N/l, Detection limit=0.01 mg N/l, QA1 bias=-0.1 %, QA1 variability=3.4 %, QA2 bias=-0.3 %, QA2 variability=2.3 %
numflag nitrate, no unit
pH, pH units, Analytical measurement technique=pH_meter, Analytical instrument name=NILU_pH_2, Analytical instrument manufacturer=, Analytical instrument model=, Analytical instrument serial number=, Detection limit=0.01 pH units, QA1 bias=2.4 %, QA1 variability=0.1 %, QA2 bias=2.2 %, QA2 variability=0.2 %
numflag pH, no unit
potassium, mg/l, Detection limit=0.01 mg/l, QA1 bias=1.1 %, QA1 variability=1.3 %, QA2 bias=1.3 %, QA2 variability=1.0 %
numflag potassium, no unit
sodium, mg/l, Detection limit=0.01 mg/l, QA1 bias=-5.1 %, QA1 variability=2.3 %, QA2 outcome=pass, QA2 bias=-4.9 %, QA2 variability=22.1 %
numflag sodium, no unit
sulphate_total, mg S/l, Detection limit=0.01 mg S/l, QA1 bias=-0.7 %, QA1 variability=0.3 %, QA2 bias=-0.4 %, QA2 variability=0.7 %
numflag sulphate_total, no unit
Data definition: EBAS_1.1
Set type code: TU
Timezone: UTC
File name: NO0001R.20180101070000.20201015093000.bulk_sampler.inorganics.precip.1y.1d.NO01L_NILU_RS1_d_0001.NO01L_NILU_IC_03.lev2.nas
Startdate: 20180101070000
Revision date: 20201015093000
Version: 1
Version description: initial revision, manually inspected
Statistics: arithmetic mean
Data level: 2
Period code: 1y
Resolution code: 1d
Sample duration: 1d
Orig. time res.: 1d
Station code: NO0001R
Platform code: NO0001S
Station name: Birkenes
Station GAW-ID: BIR
Station GAW-Name: Birkenes Atmospheric Observatory
Station other IDs: 201(NILUDB)
Station land use: Forest
Station setting: Rural
Station GAW type: R
Station WMO region: 6
Station latitude: 58.383333
Station longitude: 8.25
Station altitude: 190.0 m
Measurement altitude: 200.0 m
Measurement height: 2.0 m
Regime: IMG
Component: inorganics
Matrix: precip
Laboratory code: NO01L
Instrument type: bulk_sampler
Instrument name: NILU_RS1_d_0001
Instrument manufacturer: NILU
Instrument model: RS1
Instrument serial number: 12345
Analytical laboratory code: NO01L
Analytical measurement technique: IC
Analytical instrument name: NILU_IC_03
Analytical instrument manufacturer: Dionex
Analytical instrument model: ICS-3000
Analytical instrument serial number: 12345
Standard method: SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014
Blank correction: Not blank corrected
Detection limit expl.: Determined by taking 3 times standard deviation of ensemble of laboratory blanks
Zero/negative values code: Zero/negative possible
Zero/negative values: Zero/negative values reported as measured if within detection limit, flagged with 780
QA1 measure ID: EMEP35
QA1 date: 20171016
QA1 outcome: pass
QA2 measure ID: EMEP36
QA2 date: 20181022
QA2 outcome: pass
Originator: Aas, Wenche,, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU, Atmosphere and Climate Department, Instituttveien 18, , 2007, Kjeller, Norway
Originator: Someone, Else,, Some nice Institute, WOW, Super interesting division, Street 18, , X-9999, Paradise, Noway
Submitter: Hjellbrekke, Anne,, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU, Atmosphere and Climate Department, Instituttveien 18, , 2007, Kjeller, Norway
Acknowledgement: Request acknowledgement details from data originator
starttime endtime mm flag_mm mm_off flag_mm_off NH4+ flag_NH4+ Ca++ flag_Ca++ Cl- flag_Cl- cond flag_cond Mg++ flag_Mg++ NO3- flag_NO3- pH flag_pH K+ flag_K+ Na+ flag_Na+ SO4-- flag_SO4--
0.291667 1.291667 0.6 0.000 9 0.999 0.30 0.000 0.09 0.000 0.62 0.000 999 0.783 0.047 0.000 0.43 0.000 99.99 0.783 0.04 0.000 0.33 0.000 0.24 0.000
1.291667 2.291667 11.4 0.000 9 0.999 0.05 0.000 0.03 0.000 0.09 0.000 12 0.000 0.010 0.781 0.34 0.000 4.67 0.000 0.02 0.000 0.05 0.000 0.16 0.000
2.291667 3.291667 0.0 0.000 9 0.999 9.99 0.890 9.99 0.890 9.99 0.890 999 0.890 9.999 0.890 9.99 0.890 99.99 0.890 9.99 0.890 9.99 0.890 9.99 0.890
3.291667 4.291667 22.1 0.000 9 0.999 0.03 0.000 0.02 0.000 0.08 0.000 12 0.000 0.010 0.781 0.22 0.000 4.70 0.000 0.02 0.000 0.03 0.000 0.10 0.000

This service has been funded or supported by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), the EU research infrastructure ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure), the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP).