The example template given below contains the metadata fields that are commonly included when reporting data related to this specific template. Some of these metadata elements may not be relevant for your data reporting, like AIRS station ID for stations outside North America or the various QA measure data when there is no QA measure for the data. Such metadata elements could be let out. If you want to include additional metadata elements that are not given in the example template, there is a complete list here.  In case of any doubt about such additional metadata, please consult the EBAS team!

Template for submission of coarse mode particle size distribution data

Points to note:
  • Common template for APS and OPS:
    This template is a first step towards collecting in situ coarse mode particle size distribution data collected at ground stations. It therefore covers both instrument types commonly used for this purpose, aerodynamic and optical particle size spectrometers, even though the differences in measurement principle cause a systematic deviation and a higher uncertainty as compared to other particle size spectrometers. The metadata included allows to distinguish instrument type and measurement principle. Development of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for these instruments may result in a separation into different templates in the future.
  • Definition of "particle_number_size_distribution"
    In WDCA templates, "particle_number_size_distribution" is defined as particle number concentration normalised by the logarithmic particle diameter interval (decadal logarithm) for which the concentration was measured, i.e. dN / d log Dp.
  • Reference pressure and temperature for flows:
    A regular submission or level 2 file contains the data referenced to standard conditions of temperature and pressure (273.15 K, 1013.25 hPa).
  • Number of size bins reported:
    If necessary, please adapt the template to the number of size bins your instrument reports data for. This will involve changes in header lines 1, 10, 11, 12, 19ff, and 266.
  • Size bin diameters:
    The diameters stated for each size bin are the geometric mean of lower and upper bin limit.
  • Spacing and position of size bins:
    There are currently no SOPs for OPS and APS. In the absence of a detailed instrument calibration by the user, the calibration, i.e. number of size bins and their lower and upper limits, provided by the instrument manufacturer should be used. In case an independent calibration is available, it should be used instead.
  • Assumptions on particle refractive index or particle density:
    In converting their primary measurements to particle size, OPSs make an assumption on particle effective refractive index, while APSs make an assumption on effective particle density. In the absence of an SOP, the refractive index or density of the particles used during calibration should be documented in the "Comment" metadata item.
  • Percentiles quantifying atmospheric variability:
    In order to quantify the atmospheric variability over the hourly averaging period, regularly reported data usually contain the 15.87 and 84.13 percentiles for the averaging period in addition to the arithmetic mean. Please use interpolation if these percentiles are not matched exactly by any data points in the averaging period.
  • For in situ observations of the coarse mode particle number size distribution, there are 2 possible instrument types that could be given in the metadata (aerodynamic particle sizer and optical particle sizer):
    • Instrument type:           aps
    • Instrument type:           optical_particle_size_spectrometer
  • When calculating average values, e.g. hourly, from measurements with higher time resolution, please disregard any invalid measurements. Any informative flags, e.g. local contamination, occuring at any time during the average period need to be copied to the average value.
Downloading template as nasaames file

Please download the .nas file and edit, and remember to keep the .nas file-extension when you create your datafile:
cpsd_lev2.nas

Validation and submission:

To validate the file, please use the EBAS Submission Tool

Flags commonly used with this format:

The three main types of flags in EBAS are:

  • V (valid measurement): indicate a special condition at the station, but instrument has operated correctly, the data are therefore considered valid.
  • I (invalid measurement): showing that data are not available (not measured, deleted or if it is no precipitation)
  • M (missing measurement): mainly used for level 0 data to be able to exclude these data when being reprocessed to level 1 and level 2

For data harmonization across the network, the following short list of the flags should be used with this template. It is possible to use several flags at the same time to give detailed information about the data.

Group 0: Valid data
Flag Validity Description
000 V valid data, no flag
Group 1: Exception flags for accepted, irregular data
Flag Validity Description
110 V Episode data checked and accepted by data originator. Valid measurement
185 V Possible local contamination indicated by wind direction or velocity
186 V Possible local contamination indicated by single scattering albedo (auto)
187 V Possible local contamination indicated by occurrence of new particles (auto)
188 V Possible local contamination indicated by low wind speed (auto)
189 V Possible local contamination indicated by wind from contaminated sector (auto)
Group 3: Flags for aggregated datasets
Flag Validity Description
390 V Data completeness less than 50%
392 V Data completeness less than 75%
394 V Data completeness less than 90%
Group 4: Extreme or inconsistent values
Flag Validity Description
410 V Sahara dust event
459 I Extreme value, unspecified error
499 V Inconsistent with another unspecified measurement
Group 5: Chemical problem
Flag Validity Description
559 V Unspecified contamination or local influence, but considered valid
Group 6: Mechanical or instrumental problem
Flag Validity Description
640 V Instrument internal relative humidity above 40%
651 V Agricultural activity nearby
652 V Construction/acitivity nearby
662 V Too high sampling flow, data considered valid
676 V station inside cloud (visibility < 1000 m)
677 I Icing or hoar frost in the intake
699 I Mechanical problem, unspecified reason
Group 9: Missing flags
Flag Validity Description
980 M Missing due to calibration or zero/span check
999 M Missing measurement, unspecified reason
169 1001
Fiebig, Markus
NO01L, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU, , Instituttveien 18, , 2007, Kjeller, Norway
Fiebig, Markus
ACTRIS EMEP GAW-WDCA NILU
1 1
2016 01 01 2017 05 16
0.041667
days from file reference point
95
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
99.999999 99999.99 999.99 9999.99 99999.99 99999.99 99999.99 99999.99 99999.99 99999.99 9999.99 9999.99 99999.99 9999.99 9999.99 99999.99 9999.99 9999.99 9999.99 9999.99 9999.99 9999.99 9999.99 9999.99 9999.99 9999.99 999.99 9999.99 999.99 999.99 9999.99 999.99 999.99 9999.99 999.99 99.99 999.99 99.99 99.99 999.99 99.99 99.99 999.99 99.99 99.99 999.99 99.99 9.99 999.99 999.99 9.99 999.99 99.99 99.99 999.99 99.99 99.99 999.99 999.99 99.99 999.99 999.99 99.99 999.99 999.99 99.99 999.99 999.99 99.99 999.99 99.99 99.99 999.99 99.99 9.99 999.99 99.99 9.99 99.99 9.99 9 99.99 9.99 9 9 9.99 9 9.99 9.99 9 9.99 9.99 9 9 9.999999
end_time of measurement, days from the file reference point
pressure, hPa, Location=ambient, Statistics=arithmetic mean, Matrix=instrument, Detection limit=, Detection limit expl.=
relative_humidity, %, Location=ambient, Statistics=arithmetic mean, Matrix=instrument, Detection limit=, Detection limit expl.=
temperature, K, Location=ambient, Statistics=arithmetic mean, Matrix=instrument, Detection limit=, Detection limit expl.=
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=264.6 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=264.6 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=264.6 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=289.8 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=289.8 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=289.8 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=324.0 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=324.0 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=324.0 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=374.2 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=374.2 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=374.2 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=424.3 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=424.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=424.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=474.3 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=474.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=474.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=538.5 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=538.5 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=538.5 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=614.0 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=614.0 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=614.0 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=674.5 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=674.5 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=674.5 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=748.3 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=748.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=748.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=894.4 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=894.4 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=894.4 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=1140.2 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=1140.2 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=1140.2 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=1442.2 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=1442.2 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=1442.2 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=1788.9 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=1788.9 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=1788.9 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=2236.1 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=2236.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=2236.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=2738.6 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=2738.6 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=2738.6 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=3240.4 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=3240.4 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=3240.4 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=3741.7 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=3741.7 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=3741.7 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=4472.1 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=4472.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=4472.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=5700.9 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=5700.9 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=5700.9 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=6982.1 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=6982.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=6982.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=7746.0 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=7746.0 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=7746.0 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=8944.3 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=8944.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=8944.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=11180.3 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=11180.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=11180.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=13693.1 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=13693.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=13693.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=16201.9 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=16201.9 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=16201.9 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=18708.3 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=18708.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=18708.3 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=22360.7 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=22360.7 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=22360.7 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=27386.1 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=27386.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=27386.1 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=30983.9 nm, Statistics=arithmetic mean
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=30983.9 nm, Statistics=percentile:15.87
particle_number_size_distribution, 1/cm3, D=30983.9 nm, Statistics=percentile:84.13
numflag, no unit
0
60
Data definition: EBAS_1.1
Set type code: TU
Timezone: UTC
File name: NO0002R.20160101000000.20170516112645.optical_particle_size_spectrometer.particle_number_size_distribution.aerosol.1mo.1h.NO01L_GRIMM_190_BIR_dry.NO01L_OPC_PNSD.lev2.nas
Startdate: 20160101000000
Revision date: 20170516112645
Version: 1
Version description: initial revision, Adis_OPC_PNSD_letev0_2_lev1_0_0_1
Data level: 2
Period code: 1mo
Resolution code: 1h
Sample duration: 1h
Orig. time res.: 6s
Station code: NO0002R
Platform code: NO0002S
Station name: Birkenes II
Station WDCA-ID: GAWANO__BIR
Station GAW-ID: BIR
Station GAW-Name: Birkenes Atmospheric Observatory
Station other IDs: BIR (ICOS), Birkenes (AERONET)
Station land use: Forest
Station setting: Rural
Station GAW type: R
Station WMO region: 6
Station latitude: 58.38853
Station longitude: 8.252
Station altitude: 219.0 m
Measurement latitude: 58.38
Measurement longitude: 8.25
Measurement altitude: 220.0 m
Measurement height: 4.0 m
Regime: IMG
Component: particle_number_size_distribution
Unit: 1/cm3
Matrix: aerosol
Laboratory code: NO01L
Instrument type: optical_particle_size_spectrometer
Instrument name: GRIMM_190_BIR_dry
Instrument manufacturer: GRIMM
Instrument model: 190
Instrument serial number: 18A08016
Method ref: NO01L_OPC_PNSD
Standard method: None
Inlet type: Hat or hood
Inlet description: inlet as delivered with instrument, incl. dryer and hat
Humidity/temperature control: Nafion dryer
Humidity/temperature control description: Sample heated to lab temperature and dried to RH < 40%.
Volume std. temperature: 273.15 K
Volume std. pressure: 1013.25 hPa
Detection limit: 0.007 1/cm3
Detection limit expl.: Determined only by instrument counting statistics, no detection limit flag used
Measurement uncertainty: 10.0 %
Measurement uncertainty expl.: estimated due to lack of SOP
Zero/negative values code: Zero possible
Zero/negative values: Zero values may appear due to statistical variations at very low concentrations
Originator: Fiebig, Markus, Markus.Fiebig@nilu.no, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU, Atmosphere and Climate Department, Instituttveien 18, , 2007, Kjeller, Norway, ORCID=0000-0002-3380-3470
Submitter: Fiebig, Markus, Markus.Fiebig@nilu.no, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU, Atmosphere and Climate Department, Instituttveien 18, , 2007, Kjeller, Norway, ORCID=0000-0002-3380-3470
Acknowledgement: Request acknowledgement details from data originator
Comment: Manufacturer size calibration has been used
starttime endtime P rH T particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution particle_number_size_distribution flag
0.000000 0.041667 1003.30 98.70 275.30 313.91 215.38 439.53 347.24 224.70 501.02 104.79 68.74 145.62 76.50 55.10 97.53 39.44 25.21 52.60 21.13 13.48 28.18 18.90 6.09 31.22 17.76 7.93 28.32 12.25 3.48 19.16 4.86 0.97 9.67 1.97 0.00 4.05 1.32 0.00 2.46 0.93 0.00 1.86 1.20 0.00 2.31 1.49 0.00 2.89 1.77 0.00 3.82 1.12 0.00 2.85 1.12 0.00 2.90 1.67 0.00 4.38 1.39 0.00 3.81 1.15 0.00 2.12 1.21 0.00 1.60 0.13 0.00 0.23 0.05 0.00 0.12 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.390000
0.041667 0.083333 1003.55 98.52 273.39 247.62 212.99 287.02 249.25 203.86 299.34 70.91 53.50 88.76 47.87 30.93 64.77 22.23 10.96 35.29 12.11 6.13 18.38 7.73 3.47 13.05 9.96 3.40 15.86 6.34 1.74 10.45 1.47 0.00 2.90 0.67 0.00 1.16 0.58 0.00 0.98 0.51 0.00 1.24 1.03 0.00 2.31 1.52 0.00 3.03 1.81 0.00 4.10 1.24 0.00 2.84 1.38 0.00 2.90 1.83 0.00 3.61 1.38 0.00 2.70 1.00 0.00 1.98 1.24 0.00 2.40 0.26 0.00 0.46 0.10 0.00 0.23 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.390000

This service has been funded or supported by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), the EU research infrastructure ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure), the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP).