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Standard Operating Procedures    August 13, 2018
 
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Description

Below is a list of measurement guidelines and the standard operating procedures (SOPs) relevant for observations reported to EBAS. The SOPs provides a guideline for good measurement practice, and the methodologies, guidelines and SOPs recommended by EMEP, ACTRIS and GAW are listed. 

The meta data item “Standard method” allows reference to the respective guidelines and SOPs. Please use the corresponding keyword listed below only if your observations are complying with the measurement guidelines and SOPs listed. If not, fill in this field with 'None'. The keyword associated with each SOP is available a separate column in the table below.

Syntax:
Standard method:     <standard-method-tag>

Example:
Standard method:     SOP=EMEP_manual_v1996

 Particulate matter and aerosol particle variables:
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Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for particulate matter and aerosol particle variables
Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS  Methdologies, SOP & guidelines  recommended by
Manual of the Precision Filter Radiometer  Aerosol Optical Depth  Aerosol Optical Depth PFR manual, containing description of data analysis and quality assurance.  Sunphotometry_PFR_manual_2009  GAW 
 GAW-WCCAP recommendations for aerosol inlets and sampling   General guidelines Guidelines on inlet design for different ambient environments and station settings.   Not applicable ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW 
Station audit check list for atmospheric aerosol property observatrons  General guidelines  The station audit check list highlights the points most critical for station operation concerning data quality assurance.  Not applicable   ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
 GAW - WCCAP recommendation for aerosol drying General guidelines  Guidelines on conditioning and drying the aerosol sample depending on ambient temperature.  Not applicable  ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW 
GAW report No. 153 
 General guidelines Relevant for most aerosol variables, previous WMO/GAW Aerosol Measurement procedures, guidelines and recommendations. Superseded by GAW report No. 227 (next line).   SOP=GAW153  
GAW report No. 227 
 General guidelines Relevant for most aerosol variables, current WMO/GAW Aerosol Measurement procedures, guidelines and recommendations.   SOP=GAW227 ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW 
 Calibration and Intercomparison of Filter-Based Measurements of Visible Light Absorption by Aerosols  Particle light absorption coefficient

Reference publication for data processing and corrections for cross-sensitivity to particle scattering for the Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The information in this article needs to be used together with the update given in the article below.  

Single-angle_Correction=Bond1999  ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Multi-angle absorption photometry—a new method for the measurement of aerosol light absorption and atmospheric black carbon   Particle light absorption coefficient Reference publication for data processing and quality assurance for the Thermo 5012 Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP), including instructions on how to convert the equivalent black carbon concentration reported by the instrument to the property act  Multi-angle_Correction=Petzold2004  ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW 
Comment on “Calibration and Intercomparison of Filter-Based Measurements of Visible Light Absorption by Aerosols”  Particle light absorption coefficient  Comment on the above reference publication for the Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The article includes an important update to the correction for cross-sensitivity to particle scattering. This article is to be used together with Bond et al. 1999.
Single-angle_Correction=Bond1999_Ogren2010
ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW 
Characterization and intercomparison of aerosol absorption photometers: result of two intercomparison workshops    Particle light absorption coefficient Results from 2 intercomparison workshops on instruments measuring the aerosol absorption coefficient, including the Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), the Thermo 5012 Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP), and the Magee Scientific Aethalometer   Not applicable  
 Performance Characteristics of a High-Sensitivity, Three-Wavelength, Total Scatter/Backscatter Nephelometer  Particle light scattering coefficient Peer-reviewed standard Operating Procedure for TSI 3563 integrating nephelometer.  cal-gas=CO2+AIR_truncation-correction=Anderson1998  ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Determining Aerosol Radiative Properties Using the TSI 3563 Integrating Nephelometer  Particle light scattering coefficient   Standard Operating Procedure for TSI 3563 integrating nephelometer, part 2, including formulas for correcting instrument artefacts through angular truncation. cal-gas=CO2+AIR_truncation-correction=Anderson1998  ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Design and performance of a three-wavelength LED-based total scatter and backscatter integrating nephelometer   Particle light scattering coefficient Performance comparison between the ECOTECH Aurora 3000 and the TSI 3563 integrating nephelometers, including a procedure for correcting instrument artefacts through angular truncation for the ECOTECH Aurora 3000.  cal-gas=CO2+AIR_truncation-correction=Müller2011   ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW 
IMPROVE Standard Operating Protocols, Optical Monitoring   Particle light scattering coefficient  Webpage linking to the Standard Operating Procedures for monitoring aerosol optical properties used in the U.S. IMPROVE network SOP=IMPROVE_nephelometer_2004  IMPROVE 
Intercomparisons and Aerosol Calibrations of 12 Commercial Integrating Nephelometers of Three Manufacturers Particle Light Scattering Coefficient  Early intercomparison exercise for integrating nephelometers.  Not applicable   
 Angular Illumination and Truncation of Three Different Integrating Nephelometers: Implications for Empirical, Size-Based Corrections  Particle Light Scattering Coefficient Another intercomparison exercise for integrating nephelometers.   Not applicable  
EMEP manual for sampling and chemical analysis Aerosol Particle Inorganic Chemical Composition and 
Aerosol Particle Mass Concentration 
Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols. Note: This is the old version of the manual, please use the new online version listed below. SOP=EMEP_manual_v1996 EMEP 
EMEP manual for sampling and chemical analysis Aerosol Particle Inorganic Chemical Composition and 
Aerosol Particle Mass Concentration 
 Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols. SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014  EMEP
Particle counting efficiencies of new TSI condensation particle counters Particle Number Concentration   A detailed characterisation of the latest generation butanol- and water-based TSI condensation particle counters. Not applicable 
Ambient air - Determination of the particle number concentration of atmospheric aerosol Particle Number Concentration  CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the concentration of aerosol particles in ambient air. SOP=CEN/TS16976:2016   
Mobility particle size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions  Particle Number Size Distribution  The most authoritative peer-reviewed resource on design, sampling, operation, and data reporting for particle mobility size spectrometers.   SOP=Wiedensohler2012 ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
 GAW - WCCAP recommendation mobility particle size spectrometer: Part I recommended instrument set-up  Particle Number Size Distribution How to design an instrument for measuring the electrical mobility particle number size distribution.   Not applicable  ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW 
GAW - WCCAP recommendation mobility particle size spectrometers - Part II recommended particle loss correction   Particle Number Size Distribution How to correct for diffusion losses when analysing data from particle mobility size spectrometers.  Not applicable  ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW 
 GAW – WCCAP recommendation mobility particle size spectrometers - Part III Standard Operation Procedure   Particle Number Size Distribution Essential aspects for assuring the continued data quality when operating a mobility size spectrometer.  Not applicable  ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW 
 GAW – WCCAP recommendation mobility particle size spectrometers - Part IV Constants and Relevant Equations  Particle Number Size Distribution The theory behind particle mobility size spectrometers.  Not applicable   ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
GAW report No. 200 
Particle Light Scattering & Absorption Coefficient, Particulate mass concentrations
 WMO/GAW Standard Operating Procedures for In-situ Measurements of Aerosol Mass Concentration, Light Scattering and Light Absorption  Not applicable
GAW 
Toward a standardised thermal-optical protocol for measuring atmospheric organic and elemental carbon  OFFLINE Particulate OC/EC mass concentrations EUSAAR protocol: Guidelines on taking and analysing aerosol samples for measuring the organic and elemental carbon mass concentrations (OC/EC) by thermal-optical analysis using the European EUSAAR protocol. Used on top of EMEP manual (v 2014)
 SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014, TEMP=EUSAAR_2 ACTRIS, EMEP 
 ONLINE Particulate OC/EC mass concentrations Method used for semi-continuous OC/EC measurements.
 TEMP=EUSAAR_2  
 OFFLINE and ONLINE Particulate OC/EC mass concentrations    TEMP=NIOSH  
 OFFLINE and ONLINE Particulate OC/EC mass concentrations    TEMP=IMPROVE  
 OFFLINE Particulate OC/EC mass concentrations    SOP=EN16909:2017, TEMP=EUSAAR_2  
 OFFLINE Particulate OC/EC mass concentrations    SOP=EnCan_Total_900  
Air quality - Determination of the PM 10 fraction of suspended particulate matter - Reference method and field test procedure to demonstrate reference equivalence of measurement methods   Particulate mass concentrations CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the mass concentration of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm. Use discouraged, this standard has been replaced by an update in 2014.
 SOP=EN12341:1998  
Ambient air quality. Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM2,5 mass fraction of suspended particulate matter   Particulate mass concentrations CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the mass concentration of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm. Use discouraged, standard has been replaced by an update in 2014.
 SOP=EN14907:2005  
Ambient air - Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM10 or PM2,5 mass concentration of suspended particulate matter   Particulate mass concentrations CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the mass concentration of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm and 10 μm.
 SOP=EN12341:2014 EMEP 
Ambient air - Automated measuring systems for the measurement of the concentration of particulate matter (PM10; PM2,5)   Particulate mass concentrations CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the mass concentration of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm and 10 μm with automated online methods.
 SOP=EN16450:2017  
Ambient air. Guide for the measurement of anions and cations in PM2,5   Particulate matter chemical composition CEN technical report defining the procedure for measuring the concentration of anions and cations in aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm.
 SOP=CEN/TR16269:2011  
Ambient air quality. Standard method for the measurement of Pb, Cd, As, and Ni in the PM 10 fraction of suspended particulate matter   Particulate matter chemical composition CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the concentration of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and nickel in aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm.
 SOP=EN14902:2005 EMEP
Ambient air - Standard method for measurement of NO₃ˉ, SO₄²ˉ, Cl¯, NH⁴⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺ in PM2,5 as deposited on filters   Particulate matter chemical composition CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the concentration of major inorganic ions in aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm.
 SOP=EN16913:2017 EMEP 
In - situ chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols: Standardized protocol for CCN measurements  Cloud condensation nuclei number concentration  Standard operating procedure for operating ACTRIS cloud condensation nucleus counters.
SOP=ACTRIS-1_D3.13  ACTRIS 
In - situ chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols: Standardization of the sampling and analysis of specific organic tracers  Particulate size-resolved chemical composition  Standard operating procedure for measuring the concentration of organic tracers in particulate matter at ACTRIS stations.
SOP=ACTRIS-1_D3.14  ACTRIS 
Development of a measurement standardization and data submission protocol for aerosol particle mass spectroscopy based on Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) products  Particulate chemical composition  Standard operating procedure for measuring the aerosol particle chemical speciation by mass spectrometry.
SOP=ACTRIS-2_D3.3  ACTRIS 


 Photochemical oxidants, greenhouse gases and other trace gases:
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Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for reactive trace gases
Documents and reports  Category  Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies, SOP & guidelines  recommended by
 GAW-Report No. 204. VOC  Measurement guidelines for air sampling in stainless steel canisters for non-methane hydrocarbon analysis. SOP=GAW_204(2012) GAW 
 ACTRIS measurement guidelines on NOx NOx  The ACTRIS measurement guidelines for submission of NOx data under ACTRIS contains many helpful features to check the quality of the data. SOP=ACTRIS_NOxy_2014   ACTRIS, EMEP
 GAW report No. 195. NOx A WMO/GAW Expert Workshop on Global Long-Term Measurements of NOx. Description of the state-of-the art NOx measurements of GAW sites.  Not applicable GAW 
 ACTRIS measurement guidelines on VOC VOC  The ACTRIS measurement guidelines for submission of VOC data under ACTRIS contains many helpful features to check the quality of the data.  SOP=ACTRIS_VOC_2014  ACTRIS, EMEP 
 GAW report No. 171.  VOC  A WMO/GAW Expert Workshop on Global Long-Term Measurements of VOCs Description of the state-of-the art VOC measurements of GAW sites.  Not applicable
GAW 
EMEP Manual for Sampling and Analysis  VOC EMEP standard procedure for offline measurements of OVOC by DNPH cartridges are described in Chapter 3.8 in the EMEP manual
  • SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014
  • EMEP  
    Guidelines for Continuous Measurements of Ozone in the Troposphere  Ozone WMO/GAW guidelines for continuous measurements of tropospheric ozone SOP=GAW_209(2013) EMEP, GAW 
    Ambient air. Standard method for the measurement of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide by chemiluminescence  NOx CEN standard describing the procedure for measuring the concentration of NO and NO2 with online chemiliminescense instruments. SOP=EN14211:2012  
    Medusa:  A Sample Preconcentration and GC/MS Detector System for in Situ Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Halocarbons, Hydrocarbons, and Sulfur Compounds (Miller et al., 2008) GHG The AGAGE measurement guidelines and procedures SOP=AGAGE_Medusa_Miller2008 AGAGE
    ICOS documentations GHG Aim to follow as close as possible the ICOS recommendations, measurement guidelines and procedures   ICOS



     Persistent organic pollutants:
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    Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for persistent organic pollutants
    Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies,SOP & guidelines  recommended by
    EMEP Manual for Sampling and Analysis  POPs (PAH, PCB, HCB, chlordane, lindane, a-HCH, DDT/DDE) Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols.   SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014  EMEP, AMAP, HELCOM, CAMP 


     Inorganic compounds in air and precipitation:
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    Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for inorganic compounds in air and precipitation:
    Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies, SOP & guidelines  recommended by
    EMEP Manual for Sampling and Analysis  General guidelines Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols.   SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014  EMEP, AMAP, HELCOM, CAMP
    GAW report nr 160  Inorganic ions in precipitation Manual for the GAW Precipitation Chemistry Programme Guidelines, Data Quality Objectives    GAW 
     CEH DELTA System  Inorganic ions in air and aerosol with low cost denuders  Operation Manual for the CEH DELTA System     EMEP


     Heavy metals:
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    Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for heavy metals:
    Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies,SOP & guidelines  recommended by
    EMEP Manual for Sampling and Analysis  Most  Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols.    SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014 EMEP 
    GMOS Standard Operational Procedure   Mercury in air GMOS measurement procedures for the determination of TGM and GEM (mercury in air)     EMEP
    GMOS Standard Operational Procedure Mercury in precip GMOS measurement procedures for the determination of mercury in precipitation    EMEP
    CEN standard Heavy metals in PM10   Ambient air quality. Standard method for the measurement of Pb, Cd, AS, and Ni in the PM 10 fraction of suspended particulate matter  SOP=EN14902:2005   EMEP


     
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