Description

Below is a list of measurement guidelines and the standard operating procedures (SOPs) relevant for observations reported to EBAS. The SOPs provides a guideline for good measurement practice, and the methodologies, guidelines and SOPs recommended by EMEP, ACTRIS and GAW are listed.

The meta data item “Standard method” allows reference to the respective guidelines and SOPs. Please use the corresponding keyword listed below only if your observations are complying with the measurement guidelines and SOPs listed. If not, fill in this field with 'None'. The keyword associated with each SOP is available a separate column in the table below.

Syntax:
Standard method: <standard-method-tag>

Example:
Standard method: SOP=EMEP_manual_v1996


Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for particulate matter and aerosol particle variables

Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies, SOP & guidelines recommendedby
An automated method of MFRSR calibration for aerosol optical depth analysis with application to an Asian dust outbreak over the United States. J. Appl. Meteorol., 42, 266 – 278. Aerosol Optical Depth (rotating_shadowband_spectral_radiometer) Reference publication for MFRSR aerosol optical depth calibration Ref=Augustine2003
Manual of the Precision Filter Radiometer Aerosol Optical Depth Aerosol Optical Depth PFR manual, containing description of data analysis and quality assurance. Sunphotometry_PFR_manual_2009 GAW
Manual of the Precision Filter Radiometer
Night-time aerosols measurements and lunar irradiance
Aerosol Optical Depth - Moon PFR Aerosol Optical Depth manual, containing description of data analysis and quality assurance. Using the lunar irradiance model RIMA. Sunphotometry_PFR_manual_2009; Lunar irradiance model=RIMOapp GAW
GAW-WCCAP recommendations for aerosol inlets and sampling General guidelines Guidelines on inlet design for different ambient environments and station settings. Not applicable ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Station audit check list for atmospheric aerosol property observatrons General guidelines The station audit check list highlights the points most critical for station operation concerning data quality assurance. Not applicable ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
GAW - WCCAP recommendation for aerosol drying General guidelines Guidelines on conditioning and drying the aerosol sample depending on ambient temperature. Not applicable ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
GAW report No. 153
General guidelines Relevant for most aerosol variables, previous WMO/GAW Aerosol Measurement procedures, guidelines and recommendations. Superseded by GAW report No. 227 (next line). SOP=GAW153
GAW report No. 227
General guidelines/Particle light absorption coefficient Relevant for most aerosol variables, current WMO/GAW Aerosol Measurement procedures, guidelines and recommendations. SOP=GAW227 ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Calibration and Intercomparison of Filter-Based Measurements of Visible Light Absorption by Aerosols Particle light absorption coefficient

Reference publication for data processing and corrections for cross-sensitivity to particle scattering for the Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The information in this article needs to be used together with the update given in the article below.

Single-angle_Correction=Bond1999 ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Multi-angle absorption photometry—a new method for the measurement of aerosol light absorption and atmospheric black carbon Particle light absorption coefficient Reference publication for data processing and quality assurance for the Thermo 5012 Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP), including instructions on how to convert the equivalent black carbon concentration reported by the instrument to the property act Multi-angle_Correction=Petzold2004 ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Comment on “Calibration and Intercomparison of Filter-Based Measurements of Visible Light Absorption by Aerosols” Particle light absorption coefficient Comment on the above reference publication for the Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The article includes an important update to the correction for cross-sensitivity to particle scattering. This article is to be used together with Bond et al. 1999.
Single-angle_Correction=Bond1999_Ogren2010
ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Characterization and intercomparison of aerosol absorption photometers: result of two intercomparison workshops Particle light absorption coefficient Results from 2 intercomparison workshops on instruments measuring the aerosol absorption coefficient, including the Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), the Thermo 5012 Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP), and the Magee Scientific Aethalometer Not applicable
Performance Characteristics of a High-Sensitivity, Three-Wavelength, Total Scatter/Backscatter Nephelometer Particle light scattering coefficient Peer-reviewed standard Operating Procedure for TSI 3563 integrating nephelometer. cal-gas=CO2+AIR_truncation-correction=Anderson1998 ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Determining Aerosol Radiative Properties Using the TSI 3563 Integrating Nephelometer Particle light scattering coefficient Standard Operating Procedure for TSI 3563 integrating nephelometer, part 2, including formulas for correcting instrument artefacts through angular truncation. cal-gas=CO2+AIR_truncation-correction=Anderson1998 ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
Design and performance of a three-wavelength LED-based total scatter and backscatter integrating nephelometer Particle light scattering coefficient Performance comparison between the ECOTECH Aurora 3000 and the TSI 3563 integrating nephelometers, including a procedure for correcting instrument artefacts through angular truncation for the ECOTECH Aurora 3000. cal-gas=CO2+AIR_truncation-correction=Müller2011 ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
IMPROVE Standard Operating Protocols, Optical Monitoring Particle light scattering coefficient Webpage linking to the Standard Operating Procedures for monitoring aerosol optical properties used in the U.S. IMPROVE network SOP=IMPROVE_nephelometer_2004 IMPROVE
Intercomparisons and Aerosol Calibrations of 12 Commercial Integrating Nephelometers of Three Manufacturers Particle Light Scattering Coefficient Early intercomparison exercise for integrating nephelometers. Not applicable
Angular Illumination and Truncation of Three Different Integrating Nephelometers: Implications for Empirical, Size-Based Corrections Particle Light Scattering Coefficient Another intercomparison exercise for integrating nephelometers. Not applicable
EMEP manual for sampling and chemical analysis Aerosol Particle Inorganic Chemical Composition and
Aerosol Particle Mass Concentration
Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols. Note: This is the old version of the manual, please use the new online version listed below. SOP=EMEP_manual_v1996 EMEP
EMEP manual for sampling and chemical analysis Aerosol Particle Inorganic Chemical Composition and
Aerosol Particle Mass Concentration
Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols. SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014 EMEP
Particle counting efficiencies of new TSI condensation particle counters Particle Number Concentration A detailed characterisation of the latest generation butanol- and water-based TSI condensation particle counters. Not applicable
Ambient air - Determination of the particle number concentration of atmospheric aerosol Particle Number Concentration CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the concentration of aerosol particles in ambient air. SOP=CEN/TS16976:2016
Mobility particle size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions Particle Number Size Distribution The most authoritative peer-reviewed resource on design, sampling, operation, and data reporting for particle mobility size spectrometers. SOP=Wiedensohler2012 ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
GAW - WCCAP recommendation mobility particle size spectrometer: Part I recommended instrument set-up Particle Number Size Distribution How to design an instrument for measuring the electrical mobility particle number size distribution. Not applicable ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
GAW - WCCAP recommendation mobility particle size spectrometers - Part II recommended particle loss correction Particle Number Size Distribution How to correct for diffusion losses when analysing data from particle mobility size spectrometers. Not applicable ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
GAW – WCCAP recommendation mobility particle size spectrometers - Part III Standard Operation Procedure Particle Number Size Distribution Essential aspects for assuring the continued data quality when operating a mobility size spectrometer. Not applicable ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
GAW – WCCAP recommendation mobility particle size spectrometers - Part IV Constants and Relevant Equations Particle Number Size Distribution The theory behind particle mobility size spectrometers. Not applicable ACTRIS, EMEP, GAW
GAW report No. 200 Particle Light Scattering & Absorption Coefficient, Particulate mass concentrations
WMO/GAW Standard Operating Procedures for In-situ Measurements of Aerosol Mass Concentration, Light Scattering and Light Absorption Not applicable
GAW
Toward a standardised thermal-optical protocol for measuring atmospheric organic and elemental carbon OFFLINE Particulate OC/EC mass concentrations EUSAAR protocol: Guidelines on taking and analysing aerosol samples for measuring the organic and elemental carbon mass concentrations (OC/EC) by thermal-optical analysis using the European EUSAAR protocol. Used on top of EMEP manual (v 2014)
SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014, TEMP=EUSAAR_2 ACTRIS, EMEP
Particulate(ONLINE) OC/EC mass concentrations Method used for semi-continuous OC/EC measurements.
TEMP=EUSAAR_2
Particulate(OFFLINE and ONLINE) OC/EC mass concentrations TEMP=NIOSH
Particulate(OFFLINE and ONLINE) OC/EC mass concentrations TEMP=IMPROVE
Particulate(OFFLINE) OC/EC mass concentrations SOP=EN16909:2017, TEMP=EUSAAR_2
Huang et al (2010). Stable isotope measurements of carbon fractions (OC/EC) in airborne particulate: A new dimension for source characterization and apportionment.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.11.062

Chan et al (2019). Inter-comparison of the Elemental and Organic Carbon Mass Measurements from Three North American National Long-term Monitoring Networks.https://www.atmos-meas-tech-discuss.net/amt-2019-104/

OFFLINE Particulate OC/EC mass concentrations SOP=EnCan_Total_900
Air quality - Determination of the PM 10 fraction of suspended particulate matter - Reference method and field test procedure to demonstrate reference equivalence of measurement methods Particulate mass concentrations CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the mass concentration of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm. Use discouraged, this standard has been replaced by an update in 2014.
SOP=EN12341:1998
Ambient air quality. Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM2,5 mass fraction of suspended particulate matter Particulate mass concentrations CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the mass concentration of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm. Use discouraged, standard has been replaced by an update in 2014.
SOP=EN14907:2005
Ambient air - Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM10 or PM2,5 mass concentration of suspended particulate matter Particulate mass concentrations CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the mass concentration of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm and 10 μm.
SOP=EN12341:2014 EMEP
Ambient air - Automated measuring systems for the measurement of the concentration of particulate matter (PM10; PM2,5) Particulate mass concentrations CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the mass concentration of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm and 10 μm with automated online methods.
SOP=EN16450:2017
Ambient air. Guide for the measurement of anions and cations in PM2,5 Particulate matter chemical composition CEN technical report defining the procedure for measuring the concentration of anions and cations in aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm.
SOP=CEN/TR16269:2011
Ambient air quality. Standard method for the measurement of Pb, Cd, As, and Ni in the PM 10 fraction of suspended particulate matter Particulate matter chemical composition CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the concentration of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and nickel in aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm.
SOP=EN14902:2005 EMEP
Ambient air - Standard method for measurement of NO₃ˉ, SO₄²ˉ, Cl¯, NH⁴⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺ in PM2,5 as deposited on filters Particulate matter chemical composition CEN standard defining the procedure for measuring the concentration of major inorganic ions in aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm.
SOP=EN16913:2017 EMEP
In - situ chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols: Standardized protocol for CCN measurements Cloud condensation nuclei number concentration Standard operating procedure for operating ACTRIS cloud condensation nucleus counters.
SOP=ACTRIS-1_D3.13 ACTRIS
In - situ chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols: Standardization of the sampling and analysis of specific organic tracers Particulate size-resolved chemical composition Standard operating procedure for measuring the concentration of organic tracers in particulate matter at ACTRIS stations.
SOP=ACTRIS-1_D3.14 ACTRIS
Development of a measurement standardization and data submission protocol for aerosol particle mass spectroscopy based on Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) products Particulate chemical composition Standard operating procedure for measuring the aerosol particle chemical speciation by mass spectrometry.
SOP=ACTRIS-2_D3.3 ACTRIS

Photochemical oxidants, greenhouse gases and other trace gases:

Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for reactive trace gases

Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies, SOP & guidelines recommendedby
GAW Report No. 204. VOC Measurement guidelines for air sampling in stainless steel canisters for non-methane hydrocarbon analysis. SOP=GAW_204(2012) GAW
ACTRIS measurement guidelines on NOx NOx The ACTRIS measurement guidelines for submission of NOx data under ACTRIS contains many helpful features to check the quality of the data. SOP=ACTRIS_NOxy_2014 ACTRIS, EMEP
GAW report No. 195. NOx A WMO/GAW Expert Workshop on Global Long-Term Measurements of NOx. Description of the state-of-the art NOx measurements of GAW sites. Not applicable GAW
ACTRIS measurement guidelines on VOC VOC The ACTRIS measurement guidelines for submission of VOC data under ACTRIS contains many helpful features to check the quality of the data. SOP=ACTRIS_VOC_2014 ACTRIS, EMEP
GAW report No. 171. VOC A WMO/GAW Expert Workshop on Global Long-Term Measurements of VOCs Description of the state-of-the art VOC measurements of GAW sites. Not applicable
GAW
EMEP Manual for Sampling and Analysis VOC EMEP standard procedure for offline measurements of OVOC by DNPH cartridges are described in Chapter 3.8 in the EMEP manual SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014 EMEP
Guidelines for Continuous Measurements of Ozone in the Troposphere Ozone WMO/GAW guidelines for continuous measurements of tropospheric ozone SOP=GAW_209(2013) EMEP, GAW
Ambient air. Standard method for the measurement of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide by chemiluminescence NOx CEN standard describing the procedure for measuring the concentration of NO and NO2 with online chemiliminescense instruments. SOP=EN14211:2012
Medusa:  A Sample Preconcentration and GC/MS Detector System for in Situ Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Halocarbons, Hydrocarbons, and Sulfur Compounds (Miller et al., 2008) GHG The AGAGE measurement guidelines and procedures SOP=AGAGE_Medusa_Miller2008 AGAGE
ICOS documentations GHG Aim to follow as close as possible the ICOS recommendations, measurement guidelines and procedures ICOS

Persistent organic pollutants:

Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for persistent organic pollutants

Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies, SOP & guidelines recommendedby
EMEP Manual for Sampling and Analysis General guidelines Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols. SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014 EMEP, AMAP, HELCOM, CAMP

Inorganic compounds in air and precipitation:

Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for inorganic compounds in air and precipitation

Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies, SOP & guidelines recommendedby
EMEP Manual for Sampling and Analysis General guidelines Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols. SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014 EMEP, AMAP, HELCOM, CAMP
GAW report nr 160 Inorganic ions in precipitation Manual for the GAW Precipitation Chemistry Programme Guidelines, Data Quality Objectives GAW
CEH DELTA System Inorganic ions in air and aerosol with low cost denuders Operation Manual for the CEH DELTA System EMEP

Heavy metals:

Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for heavy metals

Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies, SOP & guidelines recommendedby
EMEP Manual for Sampling and Analysis Most Operating procedure and quality assurance manual of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), including sections on offline measurements of particle-phase inorganic composition following European protocols. SOP=EMEP_manual_v2014 EMEP
GMOS Standard Operational Procedure Mercury in air GMOS measurement procedures for the determination of TGM and GEM (mercury in air) SOP=GMOS_Hg_air EMEP
GMOS Standard Operational Procedure Mercury in precip GMOS measurement procedures for the determination of mercury in precipitation SOP=GMOS_Hg_precip EMEP
CEN standard Heavy metals in PM10 Ambient air quality. Standard method for the measurement of Pb, Cd, AS, and Ni in the PM 10 fraction of suspended particulate matter SOP=EN14902:2005 EMEP
GMOS Standard Operational Procedure Mercury speciation in air

GMOS methods for the determination of speciated ambient Hg (gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), particulate bound mercury and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM))


SOP=GMOS_Hg_speciation
EMEP

Pollen:

Standard Operating Procedures and Measurement Guidelines for pollen measurements

Documents and reports Category Description Standard method keyword - used as metadata in EBAS Methdologies, SOP & guidelines recommendedby
Danijela Tešendić, Danijela Boberić Krstićev, Predrag Matavulj, Sanja Brdar, Marko Panić, Vladan Minić & Branko Šikoparija (2020) RealForAll: real-time system for automatic detection of airborne pollen, Enterprise Information Systems, DOI: 10.1080/17517575.2020.1793391 Pollen in aerosol, Rapid-E airborne particle monitor RealForAll integrated information system for automatic airborne pollen detection with a Rapid-E airborne particle monitor. Ref=Tesendic 2020 AutoPollen

This service has been funded or supported by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), the EU research infrastructure ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure), the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP).